Aplied Physics Researches Division (APRD)

Posts made in November, 2015

TV News report about Accalarator Team High Temperature Furnace Development

Posted by on Nov 27, 2015

TV News report about Accalarator Team High Temperature Furnace Development

Armenia TV News report about Accalarator Team High Temperature Furnace...

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Vacuum Technology and Welding Group (240/4) History

Posted by on Nov 27, 2015

The Vacuum and Welding Technology Group was founded in 1986. The main working and research direction of group is all spectrum of vacuum equipment and technologies. The main target of group are research and developing vacuum equipment, systems with contemporary technological opportunities. The employees of our Institute have extensive experience developing and fabrication vacuum equipment, systems with different functional parameters. The group has collaboration with different companies and institutes of Russian Federation. Based on experience the group developing contemporary vacuum systems for different...

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Solid State Radiation Physics (240/3), Optics and Spectroscopy (240/5) Groups History

Posted by on Nov 27, 2015

Solid State Radiation Physics laboratory was founded in 1973. The main focuses of the laboratory were the study of the influence of radiation (particularly the influence of fast electron beams) on the properties of solid materials and application of synchrotron radiation for the study of solid state optical properties. A team of 4 young physicists (Hrant Yeritsyan, Rafael Melkonyan, Norair Grigroyan and Aram Sahakyan) organized by Hrant Yeritsayn in 1969, became the core of the laboratory. These people were enthusiasts devoted to their work. Summing up the works of the laboratory within these 30 years, it is noteworthy that more than 150 scientific works and reports were published and presented to International conferences. The laboratory prepared 4 Doctors of Physical-Mathematical Sciences and 14 PhDs, which are now employed by YerPhI and other scientific centers of Armenia. In 1980’s, “the radiation physics laboratory” (the early name) was performing various activities and employed a staff of 40 researchers and supporting personnel. From this period special contribution made by Rafael Melkonyan, Slavik Airapetyan, Volodya Gevorkyan, Sergey Babayan, Yuri Nazaryan, Hrachia Abgaryan, Ruben Atabekyan, Rafael Ezoyan, Anzhela Aslanyan, Felix Karapetyan and Levon Tolabchyan is acknowledged and appreciated. At present highly qualified specialists make the core of the laboratory. Among them Hrant Yeritsyan, Aram Sahakyan, Vachagan Harutunyan, Sergei Nikogosyan, Norik Grigoryan, Eleonora Hakhverdyan, Aghasi Hovhannisyan and others have to be mentioned. All researchers are involved in International projects. Special attention is given to the study of optical properties of solids in soft X-ray vacuum ultraviolet spectral region using synchrotron radiation (SR). Due to its unique properties (continuous distribution, high intensity, polarization), synchrotron radiation attracts attention of  scientists specialized in vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray spectroscopy. It should be noted that among the pioneer investigators of synchrotron radiation in Soviet Union were specialists of accelerator “ARUS” (1971). Since 1972 works on spectroscopy of laser crystals and semi-conductor compounds using SR have been intensively carried out in our laboratory. Next year, the employees of Central Institute of Electronic Physics of Academy Sciences of German Democratic Republic and Leipzig University took also part in these investigations within the framework of International cooperation between the USSR State Committee of Atomic Energy and Ministry of Energy of German Democratic Republic. Within the framework of the cooperation, a spectrometer for soft X-ray range was manufactured in German Democratic Republic and mounted in SR-3 channel of accelerator “ARUS” at Yerevan Physical Institute. Using the spectrometer, spectroscopic properties of various materials were measured during 5 years. After shutdown of accelerator “ARUS” and ageing of the channel itself, the works proceed in facilities, located in DESY’s HASYLAB station, in Hamburg, Germany. Apart from research work, at its early period of  work the team also performed contractual projects covering issues of radiation stability of semiconductors and semiconductor-based equipment. These were joint projects carried out in cooperation with the Ministry of Electronic Industry and the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, in the framework of a common program of radiation stability studies under open space...

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Accelerator Diagnostics Methods Development Group (240/2) History

Posted by on Nov 27, 2015

The Low Temperature Lab in Yerevan Physics Institute was established in 1967. The first area of investigations was theoretical and experimental researches of  Fermi surfaces for various metals (were carried out jointly with the IFP, Moscow). In the beginning of experiments on the Electron Accelerator at YerPhI there were set the experiments using liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets based on externally cooled liquid helium. This approach has been applied worldwide on many Accelerators later. The main condition was to have not more 1 l liquid hydrogen in target in case when operation time of target should be many hundred of hours. The original concept based on liquid helium evaporation heating was developed and the liquefier of hydrogen, heavy hydrogen and neon was manufactured. Made targets successfully worked at accelerator about 10000 hours. In parallel with this work in 1985 was developed and manufactured continuously working adsorptive cryogenic refrigerator (ACR) without low temperature valves. A considerable success was achieved in ultralow thermometry. In collaboration with ukrainian physicists (FTINT) was developed and manufactured Crystallization Thermometer based on helium-3 in which the primary signals measurements were done on specially developed in LTL cryogenic electronics. Another direction of Lab’s activities were the researches of overheated superconducting granules as a Detecting environment. The results of these researches enabled to study the physical aspects of overheated superconducting state in micron-sized granules and demonstrated availability of using superconducting granules for building the detectors of elementary particles. Researches on Josephson environment in (high temperature superconducting ceramics (HTSC) were another direction. As a result, it was proved that using the HTSC with Josephson environment for building magnetometers sensible as SQUID magnetometers is possible. The applied researches also attract attention in LTL: superconducting magnets for proton-polarized target, magnet transportation systems for drugs, superconducting magnet systems for high speed public transport. LTL provides also investigations in area of high temperature superconductivity. LTL infrastructure: LTL is based on the Building N30 of YerPhI including two experimental halls, mechanical workshop, experimental rooms, stores. Originally, LTL was created as a laboratory of a technical-experimental bias, therefore, there were a well-equipped machine-shop, a special soldering sector, and two big experimental halls. Machine shop, including: Milling machine, Turning lathe, Electric-spark lathe, Hydraulic press, Boring mill 2 (Recent results since 1990) Since 1990 the experiments on the 6 GeV synchrotron were stopped the science area of low temperature physics were switched mainly on the high temperature superconductivity investigations. On the base of developed in Lab original tension sensor (see below) the critical parameters of superconductivity were investigated. On the same principle a special device for magnetic fields gradient measurements was developed. In frame of INTAS Project (head of Project Ananikyan N.S.) original ultralow thermometer on the vibrating wire base was developed for absolute themperature range about 1 mK. All these devices were created on the base of unique electromechanical resonators developed in LTL in 1992-1998. The developed methods of fixation of wire ends by hard-alloy clips, decoupling of degrees of freedom on the free end of...

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Radiation Biophysics Group (240/1) History

Posted by on Nov 27, 2015

Лаборатория радиационной биофизики ЕрФИ была создана в 1965 г. по инициативе Ц.М. Авакяна при непосредственной поддержке академика А.И. Алиханяна по аналогии с радиобиологическими лабораториями, функционирующими при других ускорителях. Сухое перечисление специалистов, более или менее успешно работавших в лаборатории и внесших свой вклад в ее становление, потребовало бы несколько строк, поэтому мы перечислим лишь некоторых из них в конце статьи и представим их фотографии. За годы ее работы лаборатория достигла значительных успехов в исследовании воздействия ионизирующих излучений различной природы на семена растений,  на клетки про- и эукариотов, бислойные липидные мембраны, искусственные модельные структуры на основе лецитина и других липидов в том числе в присутствии радиопротекторов. Изучались радиопротекторные свойства ряда природных биологических соединений, например, b-каротина при воздействии ионизирующих излучений на радиочувствительные культуры прокариот и некоторые ферментные препараты. В начале 80-ых годов 20-ого столетия были инициированы широкомасштабные исследования по созданию биосенсоров и проточных аналитических систем на основе бактериальных ферментов и клеток микрорганизмов для опредления различных природных биологических соединений в сложных жидких многокомпоненых средах, таких как кровь или ферментативные среды. В связи с этим следует указать, что рабочий макет проточного ферментного анализатора АРФА- L на основе фермента L -лизин-2-монооксигеназы, разработанный для определения лизина в микробиологической промышленности, удостоился в 1988 году серебрянной медали ВДНХ СССР. В 1989 году лаборатория, в лице ЕрФИ, была вовлечена в выполнение Всесоюзной программы Совета Министров СССР «Биосенсор», рассчитанной на 4 года, в качестве ведущей организации в области разработок проточных аналитических систем. Лаборатория Радиационной биофизики превратилось в крупнейшее биофизическое подразделение Армении. Был разработан компьютеризованный вариант проточной аналитической системы способной, благодаря сменному активному модулю определять в жидких средах концентрацию: L-лизина, мочевой кислоты, глюкозы, этилового спирта. Особо следует отметить уникальную методику определения аминокислоты L-пролина на основе выделенной сотрудниками лаборатории бактерии, обладающей исключительной селективностью к биотрансформации L-пролина. На основе этого микроорганизма была создана единственная в мире аналитическая система для определения L-пролина в растворах, и разработана методика определения степени загрязненности воды ионами тяжелых металлов, в частности ионами свинца. В планах числилось создание биосенсоров по мониторингу окружающей среды ксенобиотиками, разработки методов защиты окружающей среды от поступающих в среду органических ксенобиотиков и т.д. К сожалению, резкое сокращение финансирования в период после 1991 года и, особенно, в последующие годы – после развала СССР, вынудило сузить фронт работ, сократить некоторые из направлений, и перепрофилировать оставшиеся. Неизменными остались лишь теоретические исследования, посвященные различным аспектам теории флуктуации (Валерий Аракелян), которые продолжались вплоть до 2007 года, а также исследования механо-химических свойств биополимеров (Сасун Геворкян), которые продолжались с некоторыми перерывами примерно до 2012 года. Исследования в области радиобиологии и радиационной биофизики проводились периодически по мере выискивания финансов. Были развиты радиоэкологические исследования, связанные с изучением радиационной обстановки в районах, прилегающих к Армянской АЭС. Работы по созданию ферментных аналитических систем фактически были законсервированы, как говориться: до лучших времен, и на повестке осталось лишь базовое:  изучение способности микроорганизмов, преимущественно аэробных, разрушать токсичные химические соединения – ксенобиотики. Работы этого направления явлаются логическим продолжением исследований по поиску продуцентов ферментов для расширения области приложения биосенсоров. Здесь необходимо отметить факт создания за период с середины 80-ых уникальной коллекции микроорганизмов-продуцентов различных ферментов, обладающих специфической активностью к биодеградации различных субстратов. С...

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